Although the patent application process weeds out most fraudulent applications sometimes patents are granted to the wrong person by mistake. This may be the result of a misunderstanding or someone acting with a bad motive. In either case, inventors who feel that that a patent was granted incorrectly may bring an action in court to invalidate it.
One of the requirements that foreign nationals must meet before being allowed to naturalize as a Japanese citizen is that the foreign national have a very basic level of Japanese language ability. The way the foreign national can prove that he or she meets this requirement is by taking a simple Japanese language test as part of the naturalization process.
All arbitrations held in Japan are governed by the Japan Arbitration Act. However, this Act merely governs the process and rules of arbitration and, for the most part, does not touch on the content of the dispute. When it comes to the law being applied to the dispute between the parties, an arbitration in Japan can apply the law of any country, not just that of Japan.
In addition to cases seeking the return of an abducted child, the Hague Convention on International Child Abduction also accepts applications to ensure the effective exercise of rights of access and visitation for non-custodial parents. For parents who have not been receiving adequate visitation with their abducted child, either through letters, emails, phone or video calls, this is a powerful tool to ensure visitation is maintained.