While not all companies issued them, share certificates were sometimes created by companies in Japan when issuing stock. The certificates acted as physical proof of the ownership of the shares and transfer of a share certificate generally was legally recognized as transfer of the equivalent amount of company stock.
For an invention to be patentable under Japanese law, the invention must have been “created.” Creation requires some sort of human intervention in the process of generating the invention. Therefore, simply discovering a natural product does not count as “creation” and natural products cannot generally be patented.
Owning a pet in Japan requires the owner to exercise good care and judgment in caring for the pet. The owner of a pet in Japan is generally liable for the damages caused by the animal, including medical bills or property damage, although there are exceptions.
Having a foreign judgment against a Japanese person or company entitles the debt’s owner to legally enforce the debt in Japan. However, while this is the only solution in many cases, enforcing that debt can cost money and time and it may be advisable to pursue other options before filing a lawsuit. Rather than immediately pursue legal action, usually it is beneficial to have an attorney contact the debtor and open negotiations first.