Sometimes the right to patent an invention doesn’t rest directly with the inventor but rather with the company the inventor works for. Many companies, universities and research centers take measures to ensure that the institution, and not the inventor, owns all patents arising from an invention.
Compulsory execution allows a court to exercise control over an individual’s assets and forcibly transfer them from one party to another, providing a powerful tool to force debtors to pay off an outstanding debt. However, in situations where it is used unjustly, it can cause great harm to innocent parties. Therefore, in order to prevent this from happening, compulsory execution orders may be appealed by the defending party.
Japan maintains an inheritance tax that applies to wills that are executed under Japanese law. The tax applies equally to assets owned by Japanese citizens inside Japan or outside Japan. However, for non-Japanese citizens, the tax only applies to assets within Japan.
A judgment at trial declares a winner and a loser to the lawsuit but the losing party still has an opportunity to continue the fight. The losing party may file an appeal with a court of second instance and ask this higher court to review the decision made by the trial judge.