Not every legal dispute requires a full trial and many smaller claims can be handled in a simpler, streamlined legal process. In America these cases are resolved in small claims court and are familiar to anyone who has watched Judge Judy or a similar show on TV. In Japan, these smaller disputes are heard in Summary courts.
While most Japanese citizens acquire their citizenship at birth, Japan does not offer automatic citizenship to babies born within Japan. There are three ways a person may obtain Japanese citizenship by birth: 1) if the father or mother is a Japanese citizen at the time of birth; 2) if the father died before the child’s birth, but was a Japanese citizen; and 3) if the child is born in Japan and both of the parents are unknown or without nationality.