The Madrid Agreement is an international treaty regulating the protection of intellectual property. Ninety countries are registered to the system established by the treaty and it is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) The portion of the Madrid System that applies to trademarks is called the Madrid Protocol.
Once a bankruptcy case starts, creditors of the bankrupt party lose all rights to pursue payment of any debts outside of the bankruptcy proceedings. If one creditor were to settle with the debtor outside of the bankruptcy court it would unfairly prejudice the remaining creditors so the bankruptcy law specifically prohibits creditors from privately pursuing their claims.
Minor traffic violations in Japan are often punished with a fine and do not usually result in an appearance in court. After the traffic violation, the driver will receive a blue Traffic Violation Ticket and a Fine Payment Bill. If the fine is paid within 8 days, the case is closed.
The notary system in Japan is an organization of state licensed notary agents who provide official certification for contracts and other legal matters. By having a notary certify the signing of a contract, the issue of the executing the contract cannot be litigated in court as the notary’s certification removes all doubt that the parties signed the agreement in question. In this way, the notary system reducing the number of contract disputes that end up in litigation.