One of the reasons that companies enter into written contracts with each other is to provide a certain amount of predictability in business dealings. The contract allows both parties to know what to expect from each other over a term that can last for months or years. However, when one party breaks the contract, this predictability is shattered if the remedy for the breach is left up to an arbitrator or judge. Including an exclusive remedy clause into the contract can resolve this potential source of unpredictability.
Japanese companies are required to grant 10 days of paid leave to employees who have been working continuously for at least 6 months and have reported to work at least 80% of the time. As the employee continues to work for the company, the number of paid leave days will increase by one additional day after the first year of employment to any increase of 10 additional days after working 6 years or more for the employer.
Although the patent application process weeds out most fraudulent applications sometimes patents are granted to the wrong person by mistake. This may be the result of a misunderstanding or someone acting with a bad motive. In either case, inventors who feel that that a patent was granted incorrectly may bring an action in court to invalidate it.
One of the requirements that foreign nationals must meet before being allowed to naturalize as a Japanese citizen is that the foreign national have a very basic level of Japanese language ability. The way the foreign national can prove that he or she meets this requirement is by taking a simple Japanese language test as part of the naturalization process.