There are several choices for foreign companies wishing to establish a subsidiary in Japan. One possible choice is the Joint-Stock Corporation (Kabushiki Kaisha). Kabushiki Kaisha are publicly traded companies and hence, the representative need not be a member of the Kabushiki Kaisha. The liability of members is limited to their contributions in capital, and transfers of shares may be made freely, notwithstanding restrictions in the Articles of Incorporation.
A Gomei Kaisha is the Japanese equivalent of a general partnership. The partners represent the company and therefore any transfers of equity are subject to unanimous approval by all partners. Unlike general partnerships in other countries, Gomei Kaisha are incorporated, rather than contracted into. Hence, “pass‐through taxation” is unavailable, and partners cannot escape double taxation via profits and dividends.
Any company that has registered in Japan may obtain a Certificate on Registered Company Information from the Legal Affairs Bureau. The document officially certifies the company’s registration as a real company in Japan. It includes information about the company such as the company name, location, business purpose, directors and date of establishment among other things. This Certificate is normally required whenever there is a need to prove the authenticity of the corporation. Common situations that require the presenting of the Certificate include opening a bank account, filing notifications with administrative authorities, purchasing assets for which name registration is required (real […]
To receive the protection of copyright law in Japan, an object must contain the “thoughts or sentiments” of its creator. While this sounds like a very deep and existential question it is broadly interpreted to mean some indication of human mental activity. This means that natural objects or art created by animals cannot be copyrighted.