There are three steps to applying for naturalization in Japan: filling out the application, review by the local branch of the Ministry of Justice and final certification of the documents in Tokyo. Each of these stages can take months to complete so applicants should be forewarned that citizenship is not granted quickly in Japan.
A choice of law clause, also called a “governing law clause” or “proper law clause,” is a clause used in contracts to identify the type of law that should be applied to interpret the contract. Since the laws of various countries can differ in how they interpret contracts, without a choice of law clause, a contract may be valid when interpreted under one country’s laws but may be found invalid under the laws of another country.
Employment contracts in Japan generally define the relationship between the employee, the job and the company. In Japan, an employment contract must clearly state the period of the labor contract, the workplace, job duties, the existence of overtime, the start and end time as well as days off, the wage and rules regarding dismissal. It is the duty of the employee to check the contract before signing to ensure that he or she agrees with all the terms. Therefore, it is important to have the contract translated if it is in a language that the employee cannot read.
Patent law in Japan covers inventions that “utilize the laws of nature.” This qualification makes Japanese patent law unique and means that inventions that the products of a person’s mind, rules to a game or scientific laws cannot be patented. Therefore, business method patents, which are designed to protect an intangible business idea, are generally not recognized in Japan.