International Commerce Terms (or Incoterms as they are often called) are a set of pre-defined commercial terms that are commonly used in international contracts between businesses. Many of the terms are three letter abbreviations that appear as common clauses in commercial contracts. Japanese business that rely on import or export of goods will regularly include these standard terms in agreements with foreign buyers or suppliers.
When forming a corporation in Japan, especially a company with multiple directors on its board, it is not unusual to have the shareholders appoint a company auditor as well. The company auditor system is relatively unique to Japan and is rarely seen in corporate legal systems in America or Europe. However, the position of company auditor has a long history in Japan and therefore has been incorporated into the modern Company Act.
Plaintiffs who feel that their patent was denied improperly can appeal the rejection of a patent application through the Japan Patent Office rather than resort to the courts. This appeal must be made within three months of the rejection.
These days, email exchanges have become ubiquitous and most business communication is now done over the internet rather than a phone line. This change in business norms has provide a great boost for creditors attempting to enforce debts because email exchanges between creditors and debtors often provide solid evidence of the existence of a debt and the debtor’s obligation to pay.