The Incoterms Cost and Freight (CFR) and Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) mean that the seller is then responsible for loading the products and paying any fees associated with the port and shipping. Therefore, CFR and CIF are commonly used terms in purchase and sale agreements where the buyer has slightly more negotiating power than the seller.
Employees in Japan must be paid at least once per month and on a specified date. The wage must also be at least the minimum wage guaranteed by the prefecture where the employee works. Employers are allowed to deducted social insurance premiums, taxes and other expenses from an employee’s wages. Wages may be deposited directly into an employee’s bank account with the employee’s approval.
Most owners of copyrights will be interested in the civil penalties associated with unjust enrichment based upon their work. However, Japanese law also authorizes criminal penalties in certain circumstances of copyright infringement.
Even if a deceased writes a will that excludes a spouse or child, under Japanese law, a spouse can almost always claim a portion of the estate by right. This portion may not be as large as the spouse would have received if there had been no will at all, but this provision is meant to ensure that spouses will always receive something upon the death of their partner.